Wine as a Source of Christian Redemption
CHRIST BENEATH THE WINEPRESS
Ambrogio Bergognone (given to)
First chapel of the right side of Santa Maria Incoronata, Milan, Italy
From the Middle Ages to the 16th century, the fermentation of wine was seen as a transformative process separating the pure from the impure; the juice of the grape was to become the basis of all Church sacraments and emblematic of Redemption. This idea related to the symbolism of the Christian Eucharist, where the sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ are represented by bread and wine which bestow eternal life and redemption on believers who share in the Communion. Those who fail to “render to Him the fruits in their seasons” will be judged (Matthew 21:41).
The image of the mystical winepress represents Christ being crushed like a grape. This type of image emerged at a time when the notion of sacrifice was at the forefront of Christian devotion. It was inspired by a verse from the prophet Isaiah (63:2-6) : "Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come. And I looked, and there was none to help; and I wondered that there was none to uphold: therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me; and my fury, it upheld me. And I will tread down the people in mine anger, and make them drunk in my fury, and I will bring down their strength to the earth." It also comes from the Biblical episode of the Grapes of Canaan (left), in which emissaries sent to explore by Moses bring back a bunch of grapes so heavy that they have to carry it in pairs with the aid of a pole.
AUTUMN, Nicolas Poussin, 1660-1664 - Louvre Museum, Paris
THE MYSTICAL WINEPRESS
CHRIST IN THE WINEPRESS 15th century - Brøns Kirke, Denmark
CHRIST IN THE WINEPRESS Unknown Master, ca. 1440 - Franciscan cloister, Kraków, Poland
CHRIST IN THE WINEPRESS 1sts half of the 15th century - Burgkapelle Karneid, Südtirol, Austria
CHRIST AND CHARITY German artist, ca. 1470 - Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne, Germany
THE BLOOD OF THE REDEEMER Giovanni Bellini, ca. 1465 - National Gallery, London
THE WINE-PRESS OF THE LORD Anonyme , ca. 1500, Bavarian altarpiece - Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich, Germany
THE MYSTICAL BATH (Triptych, central panel) Jean Bellegambe, ca. 1525 - Fine Arts Museum, Lille, France / 5
THE MYSTICAL PRESS AND CHRIST IN GLORY Marco Pino, ca. 1571 - Vatican Pinacoteca
MYSTICAL PRESS Flemish painter, 1600? - St Bavon cathedral, Gent, Belgium / 9
MYSTICAL WINE PRESS Cornelis Baellieur (after), half 17th century - Private collection
CHRIST IN THE WINEPRESS 17th century? - Salvator Church, Bogenberg, Germany
THE FOUNTAIN OF LIFE (LA FONTAINE DE VIE) Unknown Flemish Master End of 17th century - Couvent de la Visitation, Caen, France
EUCHARISTIC CHRIST Icon, 17th century - Historical Museum, Sanok, Poland
THE WINE PRESS John Rodham Spencer Stanhome, 1864 - Tate Britain, London
WINE CRUCIFIX Arnulf Rainer, 1957/1978 - Tate, London
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Christ is shown either lying between the screws of the press, or treading the grapes his blood mixing with the juice. First emerging in the 12th century, this image became popular throughout Europe at the end of the Middle Ages (and later elsewhere). It features in miniatures, frescoes, paintings, stained glass, sculptures, ceramics and many other art forms, including literature. First used as a devotional image, it was to evolve in the 16th and 17th centuries: during the Wars of Religion, it was adopted as a theological weapon against the Protestants, demonstrating as it did the doctrine of transubstantiation. Somewhat forgotten in the 18th century, the concept of the mystical winepress survived through Épinal prints and re-emerged in the 20th century, notably in countries ravaged by the Wars.
9. The theme of the Mystical Bath, associated with purification by the blood of Christ, has its roots in a widespread devotional practice in the North of France from the end of the 15th century. It evokes both the Mystical Winepress (torcular Christi), a crucifixion metaphor where the body of Christ is compared to a bunch of grapes, from which the Eucharist wine (a drink was supposed to heal souls delivered from sin) is extracted; and the Fountain of Youth, which confers regeneration and eternal life.
Suggestion : Johann Sebastian Bach, Chorale BWV 659 Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland / Savior of the nations, come now (1747-1750), transcr.piano F. Busoni
ADORATION OF THE LAMB Hubert and Jan van Eyck, 1432 Ghent Altarpiece, lower central panel - St Bavo's Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium
GRAPES AND WINE AS SYMBOLS OF REDEMPTION IN NATIVITIES
A bunch of grapes or the wine itself are often present in Renaissance images of the Virgin and Child. Symbols foreshadowing the Eucharist, they remind viewers of the earthly nature of Christ and his death on the Cross for the redemption of sinners. To illustrate this theme, the Virtual Wine Museum presents the work of four artists of the time: German painters Lucas Cranach the Elder and his son, Lucas Cranach the Younger; plus the unnamed Master of the Female Half-Lengths and Joos Van Cleve, both Flemish painters of the Anvers School.
VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH A BUNCH OF GRAPE, Lucas Cranach the Elder 1509/10 - Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain
MADONNA AND CHILD Lucas Cranach the Elder ca. 1520 - Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moskow, Russia
MADONNA AND CHILD Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1520/25 - Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany / 3
VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH GRAPES Lucas Cranach the Younger, after 1537 - Private Collection
VIRGIN AND CHILD Lucas Cranach the Younger (workshop of) mid 16th century - Museum of Jean-Paul II Collection, Warsaw, Poland
THE VIRGIN AND CHILD, Master of the Female Half-Lengths ca. 1530 - The State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, Russia / 6
VIRGIN AND CHILD, Joos van Cleve and a collaborator ca. 1525 - Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York / 7
VIRGIN AND CHILD Joos van Cleve, ca. 1515/20 - Private collection / 8
VIRGIN AND CHILD Joos van Cleve, 1530 - Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria / 9
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3. La grappe de raisins soulevée ou caressée par les deux personnages n’est pas un accessoire quelconque, puisqu’elle fait aussi bien référence à Marie qu’au Christ enfant. Selon les représentations du Christianisme ancien, la Vierge est assimilée à la vigne, qui permet à l’enfant Jésus de mûrir en tant que raisin divin. Les références au Christ sont multiples : le raisin renvoie au Sacrement de l’Eucharistie, mais aussi au pressoir, qui symbolise la mort du Christ en martyr. Le regard légèrement nostalgique de Marie, qui veille sur l’enfant Jésus, peut être interprété comme une preuve de la détermination du Christ (source : Musée du Luxembourg, Paris).
6. Cherries complement the bunch of grapes because they symbolise Resurrection and the promise of Heaven for virtuous Christians.
7. The orange shown in this work may seem odd. In fact, the fruit is linked to chastity and purity, as well as original sin and redemption when held instead of an apple by the infant Jesus. The glass filled with red wine is a symbol of the Eucharist (this work and the following 8 and 9).
GALLERIES THE BLOOD OF CHRIST IN THE NEW TESTAMENT AND CHRISTIAN ICONOGRAPHY